This report finds this is possible from low loss and thermal materials and assemblies for 6G Communications which bursts on the scene in 2030. Expect two phases, according to Research and Markets.
It starts at 0.1-0.3THz with incrementally-improved low loss and thermal materials in a very different mix from that for 5G. They are identified from a close look at the parameters of 19 dielectric families and a similar number of thermal options matched against the new needs. Second phase from around 2035 involves 0.3-1THz capability being added together with high-power infrastructure for driving client devices with no on-board power such as internet of things nodes.
Both call for disruptive change in materials so the report even covers epsilon near zero ENZ dielectric surrogates, metamaterial and hydrogel cooling layers and non-toxic thermoelectric temperature holding. Ultra-massive multiple in multiple out UM-MIMO base stations and active reprogrammable intelligent surfaces RIS require high power photovoltaics on-site also needing low loss and thermal materials. Uniquely, this report covers it all with a host of further reading referenced from an intense look at the latest research pipeline and the basics presented without obscure mathematics.
The report is for added value materials suppliers and users needing clear new analysis without nostalgia or bias. That is why so much is explained in pictures and summaries identifying gaps in the market and commercial opportunity. There is a detailed glossary at the start and terms are also explained throughout. A great deal is presented from 2022 advances and the report is constantly updated so you get the latest – vital with such fast-moving subject.
The Executive Summary and Conclusions takes 30 pages to briefly explain 6G Communications and extensively reveal the location and nature of its low loss and thermal needs within devices, over the countryside and the world. SOFT analysis, listed conclusions, new infograms and illustrations make this clear, including such things as 0.1-1THz permittivity and dissipation factor of 19 material families in the frame for low loss needs whether high and low permittivity is optimised. Why does 6G bring more variety and urgent need for thermal management? Why will the users largely stay the same but the suppliers sometimes change, creating partnership and acquisition opportunities for you? Who? What is the yearly roadmap 2023-2043?
The 33 page Introduction looks more closely at 6G and how it evolves from 5G with lessons learnt. Here is more detail on land, water and aerospace deployment surfacing aspects boosting low loss and thermal material markets. One such is the THz range increased by larger and more powerful emitters. Another is reduced tolerance of toxic materials and wasted energy. Tables scope 46 material families. See 11 manufacturing options. Assess the research pipeline presented with many new references.
Low loss materials and applications for 6G is the topic of Chapter 3. Its 52 close-packed pages mostly present tables, breakdowns, infograms and graphs pulling it all together. Expect honesty throughout such as the fact that there is no agreement concerning what is a valid measurement of dissipation factor at the terahertz frequencies planned for 6G. Many materials remain to be characterised at these frequencies at all.
Why are thermoplastics and inorganic compounds coming center stage and what materials are rather like a gold standard for each? See the large number of parameters that matter with the advantages and disadvantages of many materials. Here is cornucopia of different formulations in the research literature with special cases fully appraised such as switched phase change dielectrics. Understand the implications for you of the trend to integrated materials instead of components-in-a-box, the needs for the new reprogrammable intelligent surfaces and more.
Chapter 4 covers the wild card dielectric surrogate, “Epsilon near zero ENZ materials and applications for 6G” in nine pages. Chapter 5 then comes mainstream again with “6G thermal management materials and applications: the big picture” in 42 pages. Mostly it is new images, comparisons and infograms prioritising many choices. Here is an intense look at 6G expanding thermal management needs such as for photovoltaics and active RIS, presenting proposals and options with close reference to the latest research pipeline. Why consider bi-porous wick, graphene for platelets or heat pipe and the many new options for self-healing thermal materials?
Chapter 6 focuses on “Thermal management materials for 6G smartphones, IOT nodes and other client devices” in 24 pages capturing everything from locations within the device, focus of 25 suppliers of thermal parts, winning materials for upper frequency 5G and implications for 6G. Thermal conductors remain the main need and here even new microtubes deserve consideration. However, the report finds that thermal insulators will matter more than was the case with 5G. WLGore advances are showcased with others. The chapter mainly considers smartphones – even silica aerogel thermal covers for them – but embracing relevance to other 6G client devices.
Only this report has the necessary breadth of coverage given the Herculean challenges of 6G and Chapter 6 is further evidence of this. It covers “Wild cards for 6G thermal management: thermal metamaterial, thermal hydrogel, thermoelectric heat pump” in seven pages. Serious players must consider hydrogel- silica aerogel, polyacrylamide double-network hydrogel, pyramid-shaped silicone elastomer, passive metamaterial cooling overlayers and more that is appraised. What are the activities of Plasmonics Inc, Radi-Cool, Nano-Meta Technologies, Thermion? Learn of non-toxic, earth-abundant thermoelectric cooler-heaters such as sulfides, tetrahedrites and silicides.